Award in India – Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is conferred “in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order”, without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The award was originally limited to achievements in the arts, literature, science and public services but the government expanded the criteria to include “any field of human endeavour” in December 2011. Recommendations for the Bharat Ratna are made by the Prime Minister to the President, with a maximum of three nominees being awarded per year. Recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a peepal-leaf–shaped medallion; there is no monetary grant associated with the award. Bharat Ratna recipients rank seventh in the Indian order of precedence, but are constitutionally prohibited from using the award name as a title. Since 2014, when it was awarded to Sachin Tendulkar, the award’s ambit has been expanded.
India has produced a legacy of brave hearts since times immemorial. Probably there is not enough space to measure their sacrifices. However, we cannot close our eyes to those people who have made our country proud by excelling in their own fields and bringing us international recognition.Bharat Ratna is the Highest civilianHonour ,given for exceptional service towards advancement of Art, Literature and Science, and in recognition of Public Service of the highest order. It is also not mandatory that Bharat Ratna be awarded every year.
The provision of Bharat Ratna was introduced in 1954. The first ever Indian to receive this award was the famous scientist, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. Since then, many dignitaries, each a whiz in varied aspects of their career has received this coveted award.
In fact, our former President, Shri A. P. J Abdul Kalam is also a recipient of this esteemed honour (1997). There is no written provision that Bharat Ratna should be awarded to Indian citizens only. The award has been awarded to a naturalized Indian citizen, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, better known as Mother Teresa (1980) and to two non-Indians – Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Nelson Mandela (1990). In 2009, the award was conferred on famous Indian vocalist Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi. Legendary cricketer Sachin Tendulkar and eminent scientist Prof. C.N.R. Rao have received the Bharat Ratna from President of India Shri Pranab Mukherjee on February 4, 2014, in New Delhi.
The original 1954 specifications of the award was a circle made of gold 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) in diameter with a centred sun burst design on the obverse side. The text “Bharat Ratna”, in Hindi, is inscribed on the upper edge in silver gilt with a wreath set along on the lower edge. A platinum Emblem of India was placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto of India, “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth alone triumphs) in Hindi, inscribed in silver-gilt on the lower edge.
A year later, however, the design was modified to the form that is currently in use. The current medal is in the shape of a Peepal leaf, about 2 5⁄16 inches (59 mm) long, 1 7⁄8 inches (48 mm) wide and 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) thick and rimmed in platinum. The embossed sun burst design, also made of platinum, on the obverse side of the medal has a diameter of 5⁄8 inch (16 mm) with rays spreading out from 5⁄6 inch (21 mm) to 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) from the center of the Sun. The words “Bharat Ratna” on the obverse side remained the same as the 1954 design as did the emblem of India and “Satyameva Jayate” on the reverse side. A 2-inch-wide (51 mm) white ribbon is attached to the medal so it can be worn around the neck. In 1957, the silver-gilt decoration was changed to burnished bronze.
The first recipients of the Bharat Ratna were politician C. Rajagopalachari, scientist C. V. Raman and philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who were honoured in 1954. Since then, the award has been bestowed on 43 individuals including 11 who were awarded posthumously. The original statutes did not provide for posthumous awards but were amended in January 1955 to permit them. In 1966, former Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri became the first individual to be honoured posthumously. In 2013, cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, aged 40, became the youngest recipient while social reformer Dhondo Keshav Karve was awarded on his 100th birthday. Though usually conferred on Indian citizens, the Bharat Ratna has been awarded to one naturalised citizen, Mother Teresa in 1980, and to two non-Indians, Pakistan national Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in 1987 and former South African President Nelson Mandela in 1990. The most recent recipients are C. N. R. Rao and Sachin Tendulkar who were honoured in 2013.
List Of Awardees For Bharat Ratna
- Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975)
- Chakravarti Rajagopalachari /Rajaji(1878–1972)
- Sir V. Raman ( 1888–1970)
- Bhagwan Das (1869–1958)
- Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya (1861–1962)
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)
- Govind Ballabh Pant (1887–1961
- Dhondo Keshav Karve (1858–1962)
- B. C. Roy (1882–1962)
- Purushottam Das Tandon (1882–1962)
- (Babu) Rajendra Prasad (1884–1963)
- Zakir Hussain (1897–1969)
- Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880–1972)
- Lal Bahadur Shastri (1904–1966)
- Indira Gandhi –(1917–1984)
- V. V. Giri (1894–1980)
- Mr.K. Kamaraj (1903–1975)
- Mother Teresa (1910–1997)
- Acharya Vinoba Bhave (1895–1982)
- Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, known as “Frontier Gandhi”, (1890–1988)
- M. G. Ramachandran (1917–1987)
- B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956)
- Nelson Mandela
- Rajiv Gandhi (1944–1991)
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950)
- Morarji Desai (1896–1995)
- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888–1958)
- J. R. D. Tata (1904–1993)
- Satyajit Ray (1922–1992)
- A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
- Gulzarilal Nanda (1898–1998)
- Ms,.Aruna Asaf Ali (1908–1996)
- M. S. Subbulakshmi (1916–2004)
- Chidambaram Subramaniam/C.S. (1910–2000)
- Jayaprakash Narayan (1902–1979)
- Pandit Ravi Shankar (1920-2012)
- Amartya Sen
- Gopinath Bordoloi (1890–1950)
- Lata Mangeshkar
- Ustad Bismillah Khan (1916-2006)
- Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi (1922-2011)
- Sachin Tendulkar1973
- C.N.R.Rao- Indian Chemist- the man behind India’s maiden ‘Mars’-Mission