Hindi ,The Mother tounge of India

Hindi (हिन्दी), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindustani is the native language of most people living in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the official languages of India.

As of 2009, the best figure Ethnologue could find for speakers of actual Hindustani Hindi was 180 million in 1991. In the 2001 Indian census, 258 million (258,000,000) people in India reported Hindi to be their native language, which not only includes Hindu speakers of Hindustani, but also people who identify as native speakers of related languages who consider their speech to be a dialect of Hindi, the Hindi belt.

Official status

The Indian constitution, adopted in 1950, declares Hindi shall be written in the Devanagari script and will be the official language of the Federal Government of India. However, English continues to be used as an official language along with Hindi. Hindi is also enumerated as one of the twenty-two languages of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which entitles it to representation on the Official Language Commission. The Constitution of India has effectively instituted the usage of Hindi and English as the two languages of communication for the Union Government. Most government documentation is prepared in three languages: English, Hindi, and the primary official language of the local state, if it is not Hindi or English.

Article 351 of the Indian constitution stipulates that Hindi language shall be enriched by drawing for its vocabulary primarily from Sanskrit and secondarily from other languages. The trend is different in Hindi cinema where more and more English, Persian, Turkish and Arabic vocabulary is preferred. Article 344 stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use.

History

The dialect upon which Standard Hindi is based is Khariboli the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding western Uttar Pradesh and southern Uttranchal region. This dialect acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal Empire (1600s) and became known as Urdu, “the language of the court”. In the late 19th century, the movement standardising a written language from Khariboli, for the Indian masses in North India, started to standardise Hindi as a separate language from Urdu, which was learnt by the elite. In 1881 Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi.

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After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventionsstandardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee’s report was released in 1958 as “A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi”

  • standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

The Constituent Assembly adopted Hindi as the Official Language of the Union on 14 September 1949. Hence, it is celebrated as Hindi Day.

Script

Hindi is mainly written in Devanagari script (देवनागरी लिपि devanāgarī lipi) also called Nagari. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants, and is written from left to right.

Literature

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Shringar (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Virgatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern).

Internet

Hindi has a presence on the internet, but due to lack of standard encoding, search engines cannot be used to locate text. Hindi is one of the seven languages of India that can be used to make web addresses.(URLs). Hindi has also impacted the language of technology, with words such as ‘avatar’ (meaning a spirit taking a new form) used in computer sciences, artificial intelligence and even robotics.